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All about tenses

Hello guys! Today we will learn all about tenses .Rules of tenses, structure of tenses, usage of tenses, examples with all categories.So let's start:

tenses rule chart

PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE:

RULES:

SUBJECT+VERB+S OR ES+OBJECT

If subject is plural or "I or YOU" than we don't use "s or es" with verb...

THREE FORMS:

Affirmative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+VERB+S OR ES+OBJECT

EXAMPLE:

  1. The peon rings the bell. (Singular subject)

  2. They play cricket. (Plural subject)

Negative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+DOES NOT OR DO NOT+VERB+OBJECT

We use does not with "singular subject" and do not with “plural subject"

EXAMPLE:

  1. The peon does not ring the bell. (Singular subject)

  2. They do not play cricket. (Plural subject)

Interrogative:

RULE:

DOES OR DO +SUBJECT+VERB+OBJECT?

We use does with "singular subject" and do with “plural subject"

EXAMPLE:

  1. Does the peon ring the bell? (singular subject)

  2. Do they play cricket? (plural subject)

USE: It tells only about the action but not the situation of action. It is used to express:

  1. Habitual action: E.g. I take bath daily.

  2. Universal truth: E.g. The earth revolves around the sun.

  3. Social custom: E.g. A Hindu bride wear red dress on wedding day.

  4. Statement of general nature: E.g. He speaks Hindi fluently.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE: RULES/STRUCTURE:- SUBJECT+IS/AM/ARE+VERB+ING+OBJECT

THREE FORMS: Affirmative: RULE: SUBJECT+IS/AM/ARE+VERB+ ing + OBJECT EXAMPLE:

The peon is ringing the bell. (Singular subject) They are playing cricket. (Plural subject) Negative: RULE: SUBJECT+IS/ARE/AM+NOT+VERB+ING+OBJECT EXAMPLE: The peon is not ringing the bell.(singular subject) They are not playing cricket.(plural subject)

Interrogative: RULE:- IS/AM /ARE+SUBJECT+VERB+ING+OBJECT? EXAMPLE: Is the peon ringing the bell? (Singular subject) Are they playing cricket? (Plural subject)

USE: It tells about the action going on in present. It is used to:

  1. Describe an action in progress and its continuity.

(E.g. we are studying English.)

2. Describe an action in progress.

(E.g. our country is still a developing country.)



PRESENT PERFECT TENSE:

RULES/STRUCTURE:-

SUBJECT+HAS/HAVE+VERB (THIRD FORM) +OBJECT

“Has” is used with singular subject and “have” is used with plural subject.

THREE FORMS:

Affirmative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+HAS/HAVE+VERB (THIRD FORM) +OBJECT

EXAMPLE:

The peon has rung the bell. (Singular subject)

They have played cricket. (Plural subject)

Negative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+HAS/HAVE+NOT+VERB (third form) +OBJECT

EXAMPLE:

The peon has not rung the bell. (Singular subject)

They have not played cricket. (Plural subject)

Interrogative:

RULE:-

HAS/HAVE+SUBJECT+VERB (THIRD FORM) +OBJECT?

EXAMPLE:

Has the peon rung the bell? (Singular subject)

Have they played cricket? (Plural subject)

​Use: It means that the action began in the past but reached its conclusion in the present.

E.g.: The train has arrived.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE:

RULES/STRUCTURE:-

SUBJECT+HAS/HAVE+BEEN+VERB (FIRST FORM) +ING+OBJECT+SINCE/FOR

We use “SINCE” when we want to talk about a particular day, e.g. since Monday, since childhood etc.

And we use “FOR” here, when we want talk about duration of time. E.g. for 2 hours, for 3 months etc.

THREE FORMS:

Affirmative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+ HAS/HAVE+BEEN +VERB (FIRST FORM) +ing+OBJECT+SINCE/FOR

EXAMPLE:

The bell has been ringing for 2 minutes.(singular subject)

They have been playing cricket since morning. (Plural subject)

I have been learning music since childhood.

Negative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+HAS/HAVE+NOT+BEEN+VERB+ING+OBJECT+SINCE/FOR

EXAMPLE:

The bell has not been ringing for 2 minutes. (Singular subject)

They have not been playing cricket since tomorrow. (Plural subject)

Interrogative:

RULE:-

HAS/HAVE+SUBJECT+BEEN+VERB (1) +ING+OBJECT+SINCE/FOR?

EXAMPLE:

Has the bell been ringing for 2 minutes? (singular subject)

Have they been playing cricket since morning? (Plural subject)

​Use: It is used to describe an action that began in the past, is continuing in the present and is used to explain time.

E.g.: for 12 years, since 1993.

PAST INDEFINITE TENSE:

RULES:

SUBJECT+VERB (SECOND FORM) +OBJECT

THREE FORMS:

Affirmative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+VERB (SECOND FORM) +OBJECT

EXAMPLE:

The peon rang the bell. (Singular subject)

They played cricket. (Plural subject)

Negative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+DID NOT+VERB (first form) +OBJECT

EXAMPLE:

The peon did not ring the bell. (Singular subject)

They did not play cricket. (Plural subject)

Interrogative:

RULE:

DID +SUBJECT+VERB (first form) +OBJECT?

EXAMPLE:

Did the peon ring the bell? (Singular subject)

Did they play cricket? (Plural subject)

​Use: It is used to express an action that happened in the past.

PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE: RULES/STRUCTURE:- SUBJECT+WAS/WERE+VERB(first form)+ING+OBJECT

THREE FORMS: Affirmative: RULE: SUBJECT+WAS/WERE+VERB (first form) +ing+ OBJECT EXAMPLE:

The peon was ringing the bell.(singular subject) They were playing cricket.(plural subject) Negative: RULE: SUBJECT+WAS/WERE+NOT+VERB(first form)+ING+OBJECT EXAMPLE: The peon was not ringing the bell.(singular subject) They were not playing cricket.(plural subject)

Interrogative: RULE:- WAS/WERE+SUBJECT+VERB(first form)+ING+OBJECT? EXAMPLE: Was the peon ringing the bell?(singular subject) Were they playing cricket?(plural subject)

​Use: It is used to express an action that takes place in past, it shows the continuity of action in the past.

PAST PERFECT TENSE:

RULES/STRUCTURE:-

SUBJECT+HAD+VERB (THIRD FORM) +OBJECT

THREE FORMS:

Affirmative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+HAD+VERB (THIRD FORM) +OBJECT

EXAMPLE:

The peon had rung the bell. (Singular subject)

They had played cricket. (Plural subject)

Negative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+HAD+NOT+VERB (third form) +OBJECT

EXAMPLE:

The peon had not rung the bell. (Singular subject)

They had not played cricket. (Plural subject)

Interrogative:

RULE:-

HAD+SUBJECT+VERB (THIRD FORM) +OBJECT?

EXAMPLE:

Had the peon rung the bell? (Singular subject)

Had they played cricket? (Plural subject)

Use: It is used to express an action completed first in relation to another action that was completed later.

E.g.: I had taken my breakfast before the school bus arrived.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE:

RULES/STRUCTURE:-

SUBJECT+HAD+BEEN+VERB (FIRST FORM) +ING+OBJECT+SINCE/FOR

We use “SINCE” when we want to talk about a particular day, e.g. since Monday, since childhood etc.

And we use “FOR” here, when we want talk about duration of time. E.g. for 2 hours, for 3 months etc.

THREE FORMS:

Affirmative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+ HAD+BEEN +VERB (FIRST FORM) +ing+OBJECT+SINCE/FOR

EXAMPLE:

The bell had been ringing for 2 minutes. (Singular subject)

They had been playing cricket since morning. (Plural subject)

Negative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+HAD+NOT+BEEN+VERB+ING+OBJECT+SINCE/FOR

EXAMPLE:

The bell had not been ringing for 2 minutes. (Singular subject)

They had not been playing cricket since yesterday. (Plural subject)

Interrogative:

RULE:-

HAD+SUBJECT+BEEN+VERB (FIRST FORM) +ING+OBJECT+SINCE/FOR?

EXAMPLE:

Had the bell been ringing for 2 minutes? (Singular subject)

Had they been playing cricket since morning? (Plural subject)

​Use: It is used to express continuous action in the past and also refers to the duration of time for continuing of action. (since/for)

FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE: RULES: SUBJECT+WILL/SHALL+VERB(FIRST FORM)+OBJECT GUYS ! we use "shall" with "I" AND" WE" but now a days we use " will" with every subject, reason may be that we consider "SHALL" as when we want to give some advise.

THREE FORMS: Affirmative: RULE: SUBJECT+WILL/SHALL+VERB(FIRST FORM)+OBJECT EXAMPLE: The peon will ring the bell. (Singular subject) They will play cricket. (Plural subject) Negative: RULE: SUBJECT+WII/SHALL+VERB(first form)+OBJECT EXAMPLE: The peon will not ring the bell.(singular subject) They will not play cricket.(plural subject) Interrogative: RULE: WILL/SHALL +SUBJECT+VERB(first form)+OBJECT? EXAMPLE: Will the peon ring the bell? (Singular subject) Will they play cricket? (Plural subject)

Use: It is used to express the action which will take place in the future.

E.g.: They will go to Delhi tomorrow.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE:

RULES/STRUCTURE:-

SUBJECT+WILL BE/SHALL BE+VERB (1) +ING+OBJECT

THREE FORMS:

Affirmative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+ WILL BE/SHALL BE +VERB (1) + ing + OBJECT

EXAMPLE:

The peon will be ringing the bell. (Singular subject)

They will be playing cricket. (Plural subject)

Negative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+ WILL /SHALL +NOT+BE+VERB+ING+OBJECT

EXAMPLE:

The peon will not be ringing the bell. (Singular subject)

They will not be playing cricket. (Plural subject)

Interrogative:

RULE:-

WILL /SHALL +SUBJECT+BE+VERB (1) +ING+OBJECT?

EXAMPLE:

Will the peon be ringing the bell? (singular subject)

Will they be playing cricket? (plural subject)

​Use: It expresses an action going on at some point of time in future.

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE:

RULES/STRUCTURE:-

SUBJECT+WILL/SHALL+ HAVE+VERB (THIRD FORM) +OBJECT

THREE FORMS:

Affirmative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+WILL/SHALL+ HAVE+VERB (THIRD FORM) +OBJECT

EXAMPLE:

The peon will have rung the bell. (Singular subject)

They will have played cricket. (Plural subject)

Negative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+WILL/SHALL+NOT+HAVE+VERB (third form) +OBJECT

EXAMPLE:

The peon will not have rung the bell. (Singular subject)

They will not have played cricket. (Plural subject)

Interrogative:

RULE:-

WILL/SHALL+SUBJECT+HAVE+VERB (THIRD FORM)+OBJECT?

EXAMPLE:

Will the peon have rung the bell? (Singular subject)

Will they have played cricket? (Plural subject)

Use: It is used to express an action expected to be completed at some point of the time in future.

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE:

RULES/STRUCTURE:-

SUBJECT+WILL/SHALL+ HAVE+BEEN+VERB (FIRST FORM) +ING+OBJECT+SINCE/FOR

We use “SINCE” when we want to talk about a particular day, e.g. since Monday, since childhood etc.

And we use “FOR” here, when we want to talk about duration of time. E.g. for 2 hours, for 3 months etc.

THREE FORMS:

Affirmative:

RULE:

SUBJECT+ WILL/SHALL+ HAVE +BEEN +VERB (FIRST FORM) + ing +OBJECT+SINCE/FOR

EXAMPLE:

The bell will have been ringing for 2 minutes. (Singular subject)

They will have been playing cricket since evening. (Plural subject)